Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Propaganda - Recruitment and Anarchy

Questions: 1. An investigation of various techniques schools can use to guarantee kids are shielded from fanatics and agitators while utilizing school PCs 2. An examination of the various techniques guardians can use to guarantee kids are shielded from fanatics and agitators while utilizing home PCs 3. Will such securities be interpreted as an encroachment upon Free Speech? Why or why not? Answers: Presentation The investigation of the various strategies, which the schools can consider utilizing to shield the kids from the revolutionaries and radicals when utilizing the school PCs, is examined on premise of a few ongoing episodes during which the children are prompted by these fanatic gatherings to go along with them (Allport Horner, 2011). In this setting the different strategies, which the school can utilize that web framework which should bolster enhancement, vocation advancement and training of the youngsters. This sort of web framework is known as the Districts, which centers around instructive utilization of the web framework that offer instructional and specialized help, exercise plans, instructive site and expert turn of events (Atluri Diaz, 2011). 1. Investigation of various techniques: Used by schools The school can likewise build up certain instructive arrangement, which ought to give an unmistakable plan to the understudies in regards to the exercises, which they can practice in the school. Additionally, the understudy ought to get that while utilizing web in their school they have an exceptionally restricted measure of web (Balzarotti, Stolfo Cova, 2012). The school authority assumes a significant job here where they pass on the plan to the understudies that every one of their exercises is controlled by the school and on the off chance that regardless any understudy practice some unseemly or criminal operations, at that point severe move ought to be made against those understudies (Bertino, 2012). The essential point of the school for its understudies ought to be to keep up a protected and safe condition. The protected web condition implies that the locales ought to be reviewed so as to comprehend its instructive worth and suitability (Boyle Panko, 2012). On the off chance that for additional examinations the understudies needs to check certain sites, which should be possible under a specialist oversight. Additionally, if the understudies experience certain socially and socially shocking site while net surfing ought to quickly report it to their instructor (Chen, Yung Zhu, 2012). The school organization, educators and their understudies gets certain directions, which incorporates on capable and safe utilization of web. The understudies ought to be given instruction by means of the web that ought to be agreement to the understudies understandings and age ('Cybercrime broadens', 2011). There are occurrences when the radical gatherings break the security of the school web framework and trap a few understudies with the intend to enlist them. In this way, the understudies ought to be taught about the wrongness of these gatherings and report any such criminal operations occurring by the school PCs both on his case and on others ('Cyber-lawbreakers getting increasingly proficient', 2014). 2. Investigation of various strategies: Used by guardians The examination of the various techniques, which the guardians can consider utilizing to shield their youngsters from the revolutionaries and radicals when utilizing the school PCs are- In todays age, the kids are being acclimated with the web from an early age, which improves their specialized aptitudes and capacities in the web use. This may result for the youngsters to be associated with the radicals and rebel gatherings (Danezis, Dietrich Sako, 2012). Along these lines, the guardians need to improve their PC competency so as to keep a note on the exercises completed by their kids on the web (Easttom, 2011). The kids ought to be educated by their folks that getting to the web is even more a benefit and ought to be utilized capably (Easttom, 2012). The guardians should screen what their youngsters is doing while at the same time utilizing the web and pass on this to their kids. This will confine the exercises of the understudies and keep them from utilizing questionable and unlawful substance while net surfing (Flammini, Bologna Vittorini, 2011). Guardians can likewise consider keeping the PC in the family room, rather than placing it in the children room. The children ought to likewise be spurred to take an interest in outside games rather than simply sitting before the PC constantly (Garcia-Alfaro, 2012). Guardians can connect more with their youngsters and instruct them in regards to the utility of the web. They can likewise introduce some parental control programming to make control on their youngsters and disclose them to remain wary from the fanatics and rebels who plan to spread scorn (Gelber, 2011). Another goal is that with the fame of the informal organization destinations the kids are getting more interests in opening their record in these interpersonal organizations. This may bring about those youngsters turning into the casualty of the social predators like psychological oppressors gatherings and associations (Gollmann, 2011). Because of which the guardians ought to approach on the client id and secret word of their children, have control on their companion records and the youngsters ought to be educated to keep away from any unfavorable proclamations on the web, add companions as indicated by their folks authorization and cease from giving individual subtleties in any informal communities (Gutwirth, 2011). At long last while utilizing the informal communities the kids ought to be educated to abstain from joining any sort of questionable gatherings and tolerating obscure companion demands. On the opposite instead of adhering constantly to the web parent ought to invest more energy with their youngsters and grow better recollections with them (Hanaoka Yamauchi, 2012). 3. Security of school kids: against cell phones Assessment of cell phones has changed the manner in which kids utilizes the changing innovation and web framework. Because of which some insurance should be practiced which are- Initially, kids should utilize cell phones like iPads, Smart telephones and iPhones cautiously. They ought not share their own data in the visit rooms and online discussions. Individual data incorporates the physical portrayal, age, selfies, email id, telephone numbers, usernames, area and other data (Iwata Nishigaki, 2011). Also, not to give contact number to somebody and consent to contact any outsider the kids meet by means of their cell phones through the web. Before meeting any outsider the kids needs to talk about it with their folks and afterward meet anybody (Jones Connelly, 2011). Thirdly, never make any sort of web buys, which will require the charge card subtleties, their passwords, or required to hang up the telephone (Katzenbeisser, 2012). Fourthly, youngsters ought to be wary while downloading any document from any obscure connection or augmentation since it might part with their own data to the outsiders (Kotenko Skormin, 2012). Fifthly, once in a while by means of visit, email or delegates, site pages are sent to the understudies. Nonetheless, the understudies should accept the exhortation of their folks before visiting those website pages (Kizza, 2014). Sixthly, the kids ought not acknowledge any online blessings, offers, and guardians should watch that. Seventhly, youngsters ought not give their own data or subtleties even to their companions since it might later bind them to an issues (Kutyowski Vaidya, 2014). Eighthly, the youngsters ought not share their own photos or all the more fittingly their private pictures with anybody through their advanced mobile phones and Iphones. Ninthly, on the off chance that any online data damages or agitates the kids, at that point they ought to talk about it with their folks (Ortmeier Daniel, 2012). At last, guardians should take note of that the youngsters didn't join any detachment gathering, which advances malevolent or defiant thoughts (Powers, 2011). Free Speech Insurances can be translated as an encroachment upon Free Speech. In setting to this announcement, free discourse can be characterized as the fundamental right of each person to convey their thoughts and feelings. Notwithstanding, in the United States the ability to speak freely is can be abused for wrong reasons so as to hurt both a people salary and notoriety. The fundamental elements of free discourse in US is to elevate the option to get thoughts and data, option to get thoughts and data and option to utilize those thoughts and data (Ryan, Smyth Wang, 2012. The inquiry corresponding to free discourse centers that whether securities against the utilization of innovative gadgets by kids understand as the encroachment on free discourse. According to the security, capacities the youngsters ought to be controlled to constrain their overexposure to the web. This may bring about constraining the fundamental thought of free discourse. Because of which the idea of the opportunity of the data has begun which was created in association with the control, observation and checking of the exercises occurred in the web (Ryan, Smyth Wang, 2012). The checking of the computerized data was grown fundamentally to advance lucidity and stay away from misappropriation of the data. Despite the fact that restricting the progression of the advanced data do limits the right to speak freely yet it is done for the most part to stay away from both the youngsters and the grown-ups to forestall being caught by revolutionary and radical gatherings (Torrenzano Davis, 201 1). The opportunity of data is predominantly alluded to as the method of communicating thoughts and conclusions through the web unreservedly. Be that as it may, frequently the prohibited social gatherings and deceitful substance attempts to impact blameless people, particularly youngsters. Accordingly, to maintain a strategic distance from it, some legitimate limitations or oversight is there on certain sites to keep away from abuse of data, deceitful exercises and unreasonable practices (Torrenzano Davis, 2011). End Utilization of PCs is turning out to be well known universally however it is the ethical obligation of the schools and the guardians to practice control of PC by the youngsters and keep up appropria

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Representation of Women and Men in the film Gran Torino Essay Example

The Representation of Women and Men in the film Gran Torino Essay Prior to current desires for sexual orientation equity, people have regularly had totally different recognitions set upon them due essentially to their sex. Ladies were relied upon to be consistent, supporting and uninvolved and cultural desires included marriage and essential duty regarding kid raising. Men were ordinarily expected to be solid, unequivocal and valiant, with the capacity to deal with and ensure their family. Individuals who didn't fit in with these generalizations were frequently underestimated by society.Films regularly speak to ladies and men in manners that challenge the customary sex jobs held by our general public. One such film, Clint Eastwoods Gran Torino, challenges crowds sees about the autonomy of ladies and the positions of authority and manliness related with men, youthful and old.In the film we are given four primary characters; the more established male Walt Kowalski who is a solid and predominant man; the youthful male Thao Vang Lor, an accommodating, weak man; the more seasoned lady Grandmother Phong, the matriarchal pioneer of the Lor family; and Sue Lor, a free vivacious young lady with the boldness and will to remain against the forceful group culture around her.Eastwood builds his female characters to exemplify thoughts of social autonomy and administration, which challenges customary qualities about ladies in the public eye. Sue Lor and Grandmother Phong, defend themselves against their male partners in the film when they attempt to attest their predominance. This can be found in the scene where Walt stands up to Grandmother Phong, endeavoring to stress his predominance by spitting, generally a propensity related with resilient men. The desire is for Phong to withdraw from the demonstration of predominance, yet rather she spits a much bigger sum than Walt; an immediate sign to the crowd of Phongs feeling of equality.Grandmother Phong is the leader of the Lor family and what might be compared to Walt, as Walt is the leader o f his family. She is frequently depicted sitting in a rocker on the Lors veranda, viewing the area, and biting bug squeeze, a substance bit by men in Myanmar to show strength and initiative. These exercises are like the exercises that Walt is uncovered to do, for example, drinking lager on the patio and biting meat jerky, and the similitudes appeared between the two characters guides the crowd to liken Phong with Walts character, yet with the manliness he shows, and to consider female to be as characteristic and right.We can see that Eastwood intends to depict the females of Gran Torino as astute, snappy reasoning young ladies who have the fortitude to face men when Sue is gone up against with Spiders posse for the first time.Spider: This is my little cousin, Sue.Smokie: Hey, Sue how old are you, girl?Sue: Mentally, Im unreasonably old for you. Im going inside.Spider: Thats right, head inside while the men talk.Sue: Yeah, that is actually what Im doing, Fong.Her smart, snide remarks , in any event, when Spider proposes she ought to tune in to men and leave, which would re-attest the customary portrayal of lady as agreeable, represents how Sue is wise and autonomous; she doesnt follow the sets of her family and particularly not the sets of more established men in her family. This female freedom indicated conflicts with customary portrayal of ladies as feeble and agreeable characters that ought to consistently follow the sets of men.Female strength is likewise observed when Sue is in the city and is encircled and undermined by three men. Rather than submitting, Sue battles verbally back at the three aggressors, offending their manliness and inciting their anger.Tall group part: This Oriental yummy for me? Dont stress; Ill take great consideration of her.Sue: Great, another butt head with an interest for Asian young ladies. God, it gets so old.Tall posse part: Whats your name, girl?Sue: My name? Its take your unrefined, excessively clear hit on each lady who strol ls past and pack it. That is my name.From these scenes we are demonstrated a lady who trusts it is her entitlement to have the option to stroll down the road without being ambushed. This depiction of ladies as contenders who can hold themselves against men and are viewed as equivalent is pervasive in the film, and the possibility of resilient ladies challenges a customary cultural view that lady ought to be accommodating to men and that men are the more grounded sex who ought to be the protectors.However, Gran Torino likewise presents ladies as powerless and incapable to secure those that they love when we are given Sues experience with the African American pack, and afterward the rape of Sue by the Hmong group. In the two situations, Sue is singled out, due to her mentality towards oppressive men or her associations with Thao, and is attacked, obnoxiously and truly, by the gangs.The ambush of such a resilient lady as Sue, by a pack of guys, shows to the crowd the possibility that l ady are truly powerless and should be secured, as they can't do it without anyone else's help. The attack of Sue plans to show the crowd that regardless of how sincerely solid a lady is, men can generally utilize physical solidarity to rule, thusly recognizing the idea that ladies are frail and needing insurance. The possibility of defenseless ladies strengthens a conventional societys desires for ladies needing assurance. The depiction of Sues loss of solidarity and force is remembered for the film as the impetus for her sibling Thao to change from a frail male character to a more grounded one who can be viewed as advantageous to society.Men, for example, Walt Kowalski, are spoken to in the film as forceful, critical, rough, powerful characters who overwhelm; they are the solid heads who are expected to secure the general public they live in. They are introduced as fundamental to society as the ladies and those with ladies like characteristics and excessively powerless and can't en sure themselves. This is seen when Sue is being attacked by both the African American and Hmong group individuals. Walt, who holds racial bias towards Sue and her family, drives by and salvages Sue from the obnoxious attack from the African American pack, safeguarding her from a risky circumstance that she was unable to have gotten away from herself.Walt additionally cautions the group about the results of intersection a man, for example, himself;Ever notice how you run over someone every so often you shouldnt have played with? That is me.Walt is likewise appeared as a legend after the rape of Sue and the drive by shooting on the Lors house; he vanquished the Hmong pack by giving up himself and is executed with the goal that Sue and Thao are shielded from the Hmong group later on. The demonstration of relinquishing himself to spare others welcomes the crowds to see Walts character as courageous, faithful and furiously defensive of Sue and Thao, and these trademark ponder back the po rtrayal of men.The undermining notice and the generosity, just as numerous other of Walts activities, sets him up as the alpha male of the neighbor hood; the pioneer and the defender. The statement of Walt as a pioneer and a gatekeeper fortifies customary cultural perspectives on guys as prevailing people and welcomes crowds to identify with Walt as his characterisation bolsters societys desires for men.The scene after the birth custom of the family, when Grandmother Phong is examining how her girl ought to remarry, addresses the possibility of men who don't have strength.Phong: Theres no man in this house, that is the reason my little girl ought to remarry. Being a subsequent spouse is better than having a lady be the leader of the household.Man: What about Thao?Phong: What about him?Man: Hes the man in the house.Phong: Thaos not a man. Take a gander at him in the kitchen, washing dishes like a lady. Indeed, even his sister provides him requests and he obeys.Phongs portrayal of Tha o doing tasks like a lady is implied as an affront to Thao, outlining that it is feeble and inactive to be a thoughtful male character; this characterisation conflicts with societys conventional perspectives on solid male characters. Nonetheless, it additionally gives us that despite the fact that Grandmother Phong has expected the position of authority in her family and her granddaughter Sue is following her lead, she despite everything trusts it is gainful to have a man as the leader of her family unit; one more characteristically male than her grandson who rehearses acquiescence and accommodation to the ladies in his family. This re-certifies the possibility that a solid male pioneer is required for families to be effective, and it additionally reaffirms cultural perspectives on males.We can see that male characters in the film are spoken to as both solid, masculine pioneers of society, for example, Walt, and feeble, compliant people, for example, Thao, and accordingly both stren gthen and challenge customary desires for men by society.While we see the two more seasoned characters of Walt and Grandmother Phong eventually keeping up their conventional sexual orientation jobs, we see a mindful and benevolent side to Walts nature, and an aloof side to grandma Phong. We additionally observe the two more youthful characters of Thao and Sue show sexual orientation jobs that includes both regularly male and female characteristics.The film Gran Torino at last gives us four characters that, through a heartbreaking arrangement of occasions, show a scope of sex personalities that challenge and fortify the conventional perspectives on society.

Thursday, August 6, 2020

The Five Fundamental Types of Editing and Which One Is Right for You

The Five Fundamental Types of Editing and Which One Is Right for You So, the hard part is overâ€"youve written a manuscript or paper and youre now ready to move forward on the next step, which is working with an editor toward getting it published.However, a quick online search of the scope of editors and editing services offered is enough to overwhelm even the calmest of writers. Looking through freelance profiles or online agencies, youll come across various terms for services provided, including developmental editing, line editing, copyediting, proofreading, and manuscript critiquing.Which do you choose? How is one different than the other? Do you need a copyeditor and a line editor, or will one suffice? You likely have a lot of questions about the scope of editing services available, so in this article, we will break it down for you to help clear up any confusion you might have. Well discuss what each type of editing service is to help you narrow your search, specifically what professional skills are needed to perform that service, and at what stag es in the writing process you might need each.Developmental editingThink of a developmental editor as your mentor and guide for a particular manuscript. In the publishing industry, a developmental editor would assist authors from the early stages of the manuscript submission process, before a line editor, copyeditor, or proofreader even sees a word thats written.In publishing houses, the developmental editor is sometimes simply known as the editor-in-chief or associate editor. Many published books will go through a round of developmental editing (where significant parts of the manuscript are changed) and in some cases, a writer might work with a developmental editor at the planning stages of a manuscript that is yet to be written.A developmental editor would focus on issues, such as:The structure of your bookWhether your book will be marketable, and if not, how to make it marketableAny gaps in plot or characterizationAn unclear audience or lack of engagement with audienceMajor chang es that need to be made regarding pacing, dialogue, or plotWhen working with a developmental editor, its important to keep an open mind and receive all feedback graciously. A developmental editor is not there to tear apart your writing (although it might seem like it at times) or make you feel incompetent as an author. He or she is there to help make your book a success and has a birds-eye view of the publishing industry and genre that you wont have in most cases.Line editingA line edit will generally occur before a copyedit is done and is meant to address the writing style and overall effectiveness of the content of the work. In other words, it is not the line editors task to find the grammar, punctuation, spelling or syntax errors of the copy, although he or she might do this to a certain extent.Mostly, a line editor would be responsible for pointing out any of the following in your writing:Problems with the emotion or tone of your writingClichés or broad generalizations youve us edProblems with your word choice or repetitive wordingRedundant or extraneous wordsRun-on sentencesFaulty transitions (or a lack of transitions)Off-topic digressionsDialogue that does not flow well or is hard to follow/readShifts in tense or point of viewPoor word choice, bland writing, or an unengaging toneDetails that need to be added for clarification for the readerAs you can see, line editing involves looking at the content to consider its overall effectiveness. For example, a line editor for a doctoral dissertation would look at the big picture and determine the usefulness of the study, how well the author has reviewed the literature related to the topic, and whether enough details are included for a convincing argument. A line editor would also point out if there are any confusing parts that are difficult to read or understand, or if there are any glaring errors in verb tense and word choice throughout.CopyeditingCopyediting is a type of editing that focuses on the technical i ssues of the copy. The best equipped copyeditor is one who has excellent command of English language rules, including grammar, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, syntax, citation formats and more. Included in a copyedit should be:Corrections to spelling, grammar, punctuation, and syntax. This includes corrections between British and American spellings of words, depending on the audience. For example, a copyeditor would be responsible for changing the punctuation and/or spelling if an author using British English rules publishes in an American publication.Changes to ensure consistency in spelling, punctuation, numerals, fonts, spacing and capitalization. For example, a copyeditor would catch when five is spelled out in one section of the work but written as the numeral 5 in another. He or she would then make the necessary adjustments to ensure consistency throughout the entire manuscript or paper.Notes on false or questionable information such as incorrect quotes, dates, or claim s. This is especially important in the publishing world, where false information could lead to defamation lawsuits or a loss of reputation for the publication.Notes on the effectiveness or macro-level issues of the copy, including consistency in details of characters, places, etc.A thorough understanding and check of the formatting style required (Chicago, APA, MLA, etc.). A copyeditor should be well-versed in the rules related to the style and be able to correct any formatting, citation or punctuation errors within the copy that dont follow it.Analysis of any legal issues that might result from publication of the work, such as plagiarism or defamation lawsuits.In the various stages of the editing process, a copyedit would come after a line edit. In publishing circles, a copyeditor is usually the last person to see the copy before it goes to print.ProofreadingIn the stages of editing for publication, proofreading would be what occurs after the publication or manuscript has been prin ted once to obtain the proof. After given this proof, a proofreader would examine it to make sure that it includes everything in the original copy and make note of anything that is missing.A proofreader would then look at the proof to make sure the page numbers are correctly formatted and numbered, as well as ensure there are no incorrectly spaced line breaks or paragraphs. This includes checking to make sure each paragraph is set apart from the rest and that lines do not overlap each other or go off the printed page.As with other specific types of editing, a proofreaders job might overlap with the copywriter or line editor. However, his or her primary responsibility in the publishing world would be to examine the official proof before the final print run.Manuscript critiquing and/or book doctoringManuscript critiquing or book doctoring is when an editor reads your manuscript and provides a comprehensive assessment of it. Obviously, editors who offer this service should have extensi ve experience in the industry to provide valuable critique that would greatly increase an authors chance of being published. That critique might include aspects of the manuscript such as:Character development. Have your characters been developed well enough? Does your reader connect with them?Pacing. Is the pacing too fast or too slow? Could improvements be made in pacing to make the story easier to follow or understand?Dialogue. Do your characters have believable dialogue that adds dimension to them? Is the dialogue formatted correctly and is it readable?Potential holes in the story or problems with the plot. Are there missing pieces to the puzzle in your plot that might annoy readers if they are left out of the story? Are there leaps of faith in the plot that might not make sense to a large portion of readers?Its important to know that this type of editing will likely not include line editing or copyediting, unless those are specially offered as part of a package deal. Rather, an editor offering a manuscript critique will use his or her experience in the industry to give you an honest outlook on what your manuscript has to offer and what it is lacking from the point of view of traditional publishing houses and current trends in the industry.A final wordJust as editing services offered will vary, so will the professional experience of editors. Thats why its important to choose an editor who has extensive experience in the industry or field for which you are writing, and can give informed, quality feedback to help you in your publishing efforts. For example, an editor might have an impressive resume in academic research and publishing but not know much at all about publishing in a magazine. Since the world of academic writing is vastly different than that of magazine writing, an editor specializing in one will not be the best informed concerning trends and expectations in the industry of the other.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

International HRM- Report Free Essay Example, 3000 words

Other than this, CSR and codes of conduct of an organization helps to maintain the rules and regulations in an effective way in order to amplify its positioning and demand in the market. By doing so, the experienced and talented staffs might be retained within the organization for a longer period of time that may amplify its productivity. Not only this, if the employees get satisfied with the sort of remuneration offered then it might amplify the rate of motivation and trust (Blyton & et. al. 2011, pp. 245-256). Along with this, CSR also encourages the employees to present their inner desires in front of the management so as to fulfil them. By doing so, the commitment and devotion of the employees might get enhanced along with the reputation of the organization as well. So, CSR policies and codes of conduct are extremely essential for an organization in this age of globalization and capitalism (Blyton & Turnbull, 2004, pp. 267-278). Furthermore, the senior executives of the organization of Kenworth also need to understand the rules of international labour standards (ILO) so as to maintain them for long run. We will write a custom essay sample on International HRM- Report or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page 332-334). Due to which, the organization of Kenworth may not enhance its business position and image in the market among other rival contenders. In addition to proper maintenance of CSR, codes of conduct and ILO standards, the rate of interpersonal relationship with the employees or labours of the organization might not take place and the brand value may get amplified. As a result of which, the rate of attritions might get reduced significantly that might augment its dominance in the market. Therefore, from these above mentioned reasons, it might be clearly depicted that CSR, codes of conducts and ILO are extremely essential for maintenance of proper operations and functions of the organization like Kenworth.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Prevalence Of Hiv During The United States - 891 Words

Introduction The prevalence of HIV in prison populations has been a growing concern as the number of infected prisoners is nearly double that of the general adult population. HIV in prison settings is a serious issue not only in the U.S but worldwide due to the commonality of high risk-behaviors among all prison populations such as rape, drug use and needle sharing, tattooing and unsafe sex practices. This makes prisons a breeding ground for the onward transmission of HIV due to the over crowdedness, combined with the atmosphere of violence and fear. The release from such tensions are typically found in these high-risk behaviors, especially drug use and unsafe sex, the two most common transmissions of HIV. Although many correctional institutions have some form of HIV testing in place, their policies and procedures widely vary. Mandatory testing specifically in prisons is a mandated test performed with or without consent during the admission process (Gagnon, 2013). Support for Mandatory HIV Testing As imprisonment rates continue to rise, optimists for mandatory testing have expressed that correctional facilities serve as an important location in targeting treatment and prevention based initiatives (Milloy, 2014). Mandatory HIV testing is perceived as an aggressive form of testing because it implies that all inmates are at equal risk of HIV, and testing will be performed regardless of consent. However, it provides a front door barrier to HIV before inmates ever enterShow MoreRelatedComparing Two Studies On Estimated Hiv Incidence And Prevalence1456 Words   |  6 PagesStudies on estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence Introduction In the era of HIV global pandemic, estimating incidence and prevalence correctly is critical, as it becomes a strong tool for authorities to decide next action, to mitigate infection rate and its multiple consequences to society. 2 studies investigated HIV estimated incidence from different approaches. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Urban Geography Free Essays

Urban geography is a branch of human geography concerned with various aspects of cities. An urban geographer’s main role is to emphasize location and space and study the spatial processes that create patterns observed in urban areas. To do this, they study the site, evolution and growth, and classification of villages, towns and cities as well as their location and importance in relation to different regions and cities. We will write a custom essay sample on Urban Geography or any similar topic only for you Order Now Economic, political and social aspects within cities are also important in urban geography. In order to fully understand each of these aspects of a city, urban geography represents a combination of many other fields within geography. Physical geography for example is important in understanding why a city is located in a specific area as site and environmental conditions play a large role in whether or not a city develops. Cultural geography can aid in understanding various conditions related to an area’s people, while economic geography aids in understanding the types of economic activities and jobs available in an area. Fields outside of geography such as resource management, anthropology and urban sociology are also important. Urban geography is the study of areas which have a high concentration of buildings and infrastructure. These are areas where the majority of economic activities are in the secondary sector and tertiary sectors. They often have a high population density. Urban geography is that branch of science, which deals with the study of urban areas, in terms of concentration, infrastructure, economy, and environmental impacts. It can be considered a sub-discipline of the larger field of human geography with overlaps of content with that of Cultural Geography. It can often overlap with other fields of study such as anthropology and urban sociology. Urban geographers seek to understand how factors interact over space, what function they serve and their interrelationships. Urban geographers also look at the development of settlements. Therefore, it involves planning city expansion and improvements. Urban geography, then, attempts to account for the human and environmental impacts of the change. Urban geography focuses on the city in the context of space throughout countries and continents. Definition of a City An essential component within urban geography is defining what a city or urban area actually is. Although a difficult task, urban geographers generally define the city as a concentration of people with a similar way of life based on job type, cultural preferences, political views and lifestyle. Specialized land uses, a variety different institutions and use of resources also help in distinguishing one city from another. In addition, urban geographers also work to differentiate areas of different sizes. Because it is hard to find sharp distinctions between areas of different sizes, urban geographers often use the rural-urban continuum to guide their understanding and help classify areas. It takes into account hamlets and villages which are generally considered rural and consist of small, dispersed populations, as well as cities and metropolitan areas considered urban with concentrated, dense populations. History of Urban Geography The earliest studies of urban geography in the United States focused on site and situation. This developed out of the man-land tradition of geography which focused on the impact of nature on humans and vice versa. In the 1920s, Carl Sauer became influential in urban geography as he motivated geographers to study a city’s population and economic aspects with regard to its physical location. In addition, central place theory and regional studies focused on the hinterland (the rural outlying are supporting a city with agricultural products and raw materials) and trade areas were also important to early urban geography. Throughout the 1950s and 1970s, geography itself became focused on spatial analysis, quantitative measurements and the use of the scientific method. At the same time, urban geographers began quantitative information like census data to compare different urban areas. Using this data allowed them to do comparative studies of different cities and develop computer based analysis out of those studies. By the 1970s, urban studies were the leading form geographic research. Shortly thereafter, behavioral studies began to grow within geography and in urban geography. Proponents of behavioral studies believed that location and spatial characteristics could not be held solely responsible for changes in a city. Instead, changes in a city arise from decisions made by individuals and organizations within the city. By the 1980s, urban geographers became largely concerned with structural aspects of the city related to underlying social, political and economic structures. For example, urban geographers at this time studied how capital investment could foster urban change in various cities. Throughout the late 1980s until today, urban geographers have begun to differentiate themselves from one another, therefore allowing the field to be filled with a number of different viewpoints and focuses. For example, a city’s site and situation is still regarded as important to its growth, as is its history and relationship with its physical environment and natural resources. People’s interactions with each other and political and economic factors are still studied as agents of urban change as well. Themes of Urban Geography Although urban geography has several different focuses and viewpoints, there are two major themes that dominate its study today. The first of these is the study of problems relating to the spatial distribution of cities and the patterns of movement and links that connect them across space. This approach focuses on the city system. The second theme in urban geography today is the study of patterns of distribution and interaction of people and businesses within cities. This theme mainly looks at a city’s inner structure and therefore focuses on the city as a system. In order to follow these themes and study cities, urban geographers often break down their research into different levels of analysis. In focusing on the city system, urban geographers must look at the city on the neighborhood and citywide level, as well as how it relates to other cities on a regional, national and global level. To study the city as a system and its inner structure as in the second approach, urban geographers are mainly concerned with the neighborhood and city level. How to cite Urban Geography, Papers

Friday, May 1, 2020

The Theory of Heredity

Question: Explain The Theory ofHeredity. Answer: In 1866, Gregor Mendel, an European monk, tells us about the theory of heredity, but unfortunately it was recognized long after he died in 1900. For his experiments, Mendel used commonpeaplants which are also named as Pisum sativum. He found that some traits appear in progeny with no mixing of characteristics of the parents. For example, when he cross pollinated the progeny of the pea plant, he found that its flowers appeared either purple or white in colour, but not as the intermediate colours. He studied seven traits of the pea plant with discrete alternative forms such as colour of a plant's flowers, position of the flower on the plant, seeds colour and shape , pea pods colour and shape, and the length of plant stems. (Mendelian laws of inheritance, 2016) According to Mendel, the hereditary determinants, which are also called genes, are of a specific nature. While studying the each trait, he found that a pair of genes contains two alleles and each parent in their each cell has two genes. After crossing the two pure line breeds, he observed that the F1generation progeny has one allele for the recessive phenotype and one for the dominant phenotype. He observed that gene pair of one member segregates into a gamete. He analyzed his pea plant number and invented three laws of inheritance, i.e., Law of Dominance, Law of Segregationand Law of Independent Assortment. As indicated by his law of dominance, in a pair of traits, one gene dominates the other in inheritance except in the case when both the genes in the pair are recessive. Likewise, law of segregation says that amid the gametes production, the pair of each inherited gene segregate and from each parent, progeny gets one gene. Similarly law of independent assortment expresses that the laws of chance represent which specific qualities of the parental pairs will arise in an individual progeny. (Mendel's Genetics, 2013) In a cross, let one of the parent who is homozygous non tongue roller (recessive) is denoted as rr and he / she will be unable to roll his / her tongue due to the absence of dominant gene. (Science Brainwaves, 2011)But the other parent who is heterozygous roller is denoted as Rr and he / she will be able to roll his tongue due to the presence of dominant gene. So, a cross between Rr and rr produces a genotypic ratio of 2 Rr : 2 rr or 1 Rr: 1 rr. R r r Rr rr r Rr rr So, it is found that the genotype of the children is Rr and rr, that is, 50% of the children will be heterozygous (Rr) and 50% will be homozygous recessive (rr). The persons who can taste the chemical named as Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) are associated with the taster gene. So, both Homozygous PP and heterozygous Pp persons show the "P" phenotype, but only a homozygous pp person show the "t" phenotype. As the phenotype of the Pp person look like that of the PP persons, so, the P allele is dominant to the p allele. (Primer of Mendelian Genetics, 2012) So, from Punnett Square diagram, it is found that a cross between two heterozygous parents, (Pp x Pp) produces a genotypic ratio of 1 PP: 2 Pp: 1 pp. P p P PP Pp p Pp pp It is found that 25% of the progeny will be homozygous dominant (PP), 50% of the progeny will be heterozygous (Pp) and other 25% of the progeny will be homozygous recessive (pp). References: Mendelian laws of inheritance, 2016. [online]. Available at: https://www.scienceclarified.com/Ma-Mu/Mendelian-Laws-of-Inheritance.html [Accessed 27 May 2016]. Mendel's Genetics, 2013. [online]. Available at: https://anthro.palomar.edu/mendel/mendel_1.htm [Accessed 27 May 2016]. Primer of Mendelian Genetics, 2012. [online]. Available at: https://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Mendelian_Rules.html [Accessed 27 May 2016]. Science Brainwaves, 2011. Dominant and Recessive Genes In Humans. [online]. Available at: https://www.sciencebrainwaves.com/dominant-and-recessive-genes-in-humans/ [Accessed 27 May 2016].